This applies all the more so when providing assistance from OECD countries to developing countries when there are two sets of domestic policies to consider. The case of agricultural and rural development also increases complexity, since uncertainties about natural and human systems in rural areas of developing countries are, by and large, greater than those seen in industrialised countries. Platform Knowledge Piece I — Policy coherence for agriculture and rural development.
Agriculture and the environment
June to March The key questions that the study will answer are: Which issues do agricultural and rural development policies in developing countries address? What objectives are set? Are there notable gaps or inconsistencies in policies for ARD in developing countries?
- The Girard Reader.
- The Development Dimension Coherence of Agricultural and Rural Development - OECD - Google Books?
- A Necklace of Raindrops, and Other Stories?
- Science Sifting: Tools for Innovation in Science and Technology;
What structures and processes are in place in developing countries and used to ensure coherence? What is known about their effectiveness?
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What has been the experience of donor agency processes for improved coherence? Right away, the new arrivals and their powerful friend set out to liberate the peasantry and get rid of the class of local landed gentry with whom they had no political connection. These various measures considerably reduced the number of share-croppers, as small farmers cultivating their own land became the majority.
A quarter of the farmland surface area was distributed to small farmers, thus giving the country a more egalitarian farm structure.
The former landowners received small monetary compensations as well as stocks in industrial companies set up by the government at the same time, thus transforming these people into capitalists. Agricultural development was revived along the same technical lines as what the Japanese had promoted, which sought to make use of the abundant rural workforce: high-yield seeds, fertilisation and irrigation.
The use of draft animals increased from to while the amount of manpower invested in farming increased until Mechanisation, which could have substituted human labour, was not encouraged until the seventies, once industrial development was able to absorb the labour transfer. Furthermore, mechanisation was only done through forms that were compatible with peasant production methods such as tillers and lawn tractors.
This agricultural policy was directly organised and financed by the American government through a surprising institutional arrangement. For 20 years, the JCRR was a kind of super-ministry of Agriculture, totally independent from the local government who did not have access to the funds managed by the JCRR. Its policy entailed cooperating with Taiwanese professional farming organisations in order to formulate then apply development projects.
In a way, the United States furnished the Taiwanese State with a supplementary State apparatus, until it acquired the level of development, efficiency and integrity inherent to a modern, industrial and middle-class state. This policy had illustrious success: between and , agricultural production quintupled and continues to diversify: animal products, fruits and vegetables, which were not very prominent early on, reached, particularly in the last years, an above-average growth rate.
- Improving Market Access: Toward Greater Coherence Between Aid and Trade -- An IMF Issues Brief.
- Freely available;
- Understanding Organizations in Complex, Emergent and Uncertain Environments!
For this reason, it is safe to say that agricultural surplus played a crucial role in the constitution of industrial capital Thorbecke: Servolin remarks that Taiwanese agriculture began to experience problems in matters of production and market regulation, or in price and income monitoring—the same problems that characterise the farming sectors of all developed countries!
The experience of Taiwan, beyond its specificity, clearly illustrates a certain number of necessary conditions to be met in order to attain sustainable economic development backed by family farming.
WP Policy Coherence in Agricultural and Rural Development: Cambodia – CDRI
For an agrarian reform to enable farmers to profit from new possibilities due to intensified production, it must be accompanied by a coherent agricultural policy, as much at the technical level modernisation of techniques and organisation as at the level of political economy market regulation. Furthermore, this would be impossible today when economies open completely to the global market economy. This article is part of Land Policies and Agrarian Reforms. Proposal Paper. Paper Editor: Merlet, Michel.