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Because I asked, I did get offered some extra help which was valuable in setting up my own portable business. We also had a chance to tour kindergartens and schools before moving and my husband received intercultural training on how to do business in Dubai. When we arrived in Dubai, we realized the need for legal assistance in setting up our wills which would apply in the Shariah law practiced in the United Arab Emirates.

Access to language courses , on-the-ground relocation assistance and an offer of annual home leave. Long-term expats understand the importance of learning the local language as soon as possible. Signing them up for language courses shows that they are supported in their new expat assignment.

The offer of an annual home leave becomes quite crucial for long-term expats, who start to feel further and further away from their home countries. It provides an anchor while they continue to sail in foreign seas. She currently lives in Dubai and writes about her expat life, cross-cultural experiences and raising her two global citizens around the world on her blog ' And Then We Moved To '. You can follow her writing on Facebook , Instagram , and Twitter. A burgeoning startup scene, vibrant nightlife and deep-dish pizza? The South Korean capital is an increasingly important commercial centre, but it is still something of an outlier from an expat perspective.

But its status as an arguably marginal destination for expats comes with both advantages and disadvantages Highly regarded and revered for its stringent demands and rigorous auditing process, the label ensures that only the most reliable and performing movers can bear the seal.

The FAIM label is your assurance for a smooth, safe and comprehensive removal process. Contact us Affiliates only. You are here Home. Always an expat, never a repat.

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The complexities of long-term expatriation. So, when it comes to repatriation for a family like ours, there are no easy answers. The challenges of repeated expatriation. For example, families could benefit from pre-departure cross-cultural and language training Punnett, ; Copeland, During this training, the specifics of the host culture, past foreign expatriate experience, language skills, intercultural competences, and personal resources of the whole family could be targeted Shaffer et al. Companies sending families on international assignments should be encouraged to include all family members in the pre-departure training Shaffer and Harrison, where their different roles and expectations should be taken into account.

Family counseling could forewarn of the upcoming changes and clarify family roles and family functioning, and could alleviate problems Lazarova et al. Additionally, more emphasis should be put on explaining the motives and positive aspects of relocation. The preparation before the move and the actual process of adjustment may be highly influenced by the nature of the host culture. Particularly, it should be acknowledged that there is a difference if the host country is multicultural with different sub-cultures e.

In cases where expatriate parents belong to one the same culture, they may not be completely aware that their children growing up as TCKs have different challenges. Therefore, it is of huge importance that parents receive counseling about how to support children during their most crucial developmental years, taking into account their identity formation and their developmental needs.

While parents may be struggling with homesickness and planning their eventual return to their home country, for children the move may provoke additional stress as they may perceive it as adjusting to a new culture. TCKs feel best among other people with similar experiences which parents may find hard to understand and accept. In short, TCKs are different from their parents in terms of their cultural identity and families need to be educated and supported to deal with this challenge. The possibility and availability of psychological support e.

Partners could specifically focus on how to use their time and resources when abroad Lauring and Selmer, Direct communication and support between the company and trailing partner could facilitate adjustment of the whole family, as it is usually trailing partners who have to deal more with hassles of relocation Lazarova et al. Children and teenagers could be prepared for the international assignment through video information about the life in the new school and friendships abroad Weeks et al. Further, family members who are moving abroad and host country nationals should be put in contact before the departure so that hosts in the host countries could play an active role in the preparation activities.

Even with the most thorough pre-departure training families cannot avoid experiencing some degree of adjustment stress shortly after the relocation, and therefore some follow-up on the adjustment process after the move is warranted. For example, host country nationals could be considered to assist newcomer expatriate families with learning about the host culture and local customs in the new location Osland, In particular human resources management could add value by providing adjustment assistance within the expatriate communities.

For example, by supporting the development of friendships in the new environment i. Furthermore, employer provided career assistance and consideration of roles and responsibilities of both partners is needed for expatriate partners who plan to continue their career in the host country Cole, ; Lazarova et al. To be able to offer clear guidelines on how children facing many relocations in their life can obtain some degree of sense of stability when their family moves on international assignments, more research is needed on the nature of adjustment of children and teenagers.

Till stress do us part: the causes and consequences of expatriate divorce

In sum, our narrative review provides a summary of contemporary findings on expatriate family adjustment, including identification of challenges as well as personal, family, and community resources that foster adjustment of family members. Notably, clear conceptualization of expatriate family or expatriate family adjustment is needed. A general theory of expatriate family adjustment is called upon that would in a comprehensive way integrate multiple theoretical perspectives on expatriate family adjustment; work-family literature, adjustment and expatriate literature, stress and positive psychology, cultural and cross-cultural psychology, social theories, work transitions, family functioning, family relations, different types of families, and communication.

Further, studies should not neglect culture identity formation of children and the impact of both home country and host country cultures. In particular, research using cultural psychology perspective is needed to enrich the understanding of expatriate family experience. Finally, more research should focus on shedding light on positive outcomes and opportunities of expatriate families. Our narrative review represents an important contribution to expatriate family adjustment literature. It may serve as an important source of knowledge for experts in the field of expatriate family adjustment and related fields of research, such as cultural, cross-cultural psychology, family and organizational psychology.

Because of its broad scope it can be accessible to broader audience, such as HR experts, teachers in international schools, clinicians working with expatriates, and of course present and future expatriate families. MFS and JF conceived the contents of the review. MFS reviewed the papers and drafted the manuscript.

LV conceived the structure of the article. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v.

Front Psychol. Published online Jul Verhofstadt 1. Johnny R. Lesley L. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Cultural Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Dec 3; Accepted Jun The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The current theoretical paper presents a comprehensive overview of findings from research attempting to understand what happens with expatriates and their families while living abroad. Keywords: expatriate family adjustment, narrative review, challenges, resources, expatriates, family practice, adjustment disorders, third culture kids. Introduction The vast research literature on expatriate adjustment has been long characterized by a predominant focus on individual adjustment of an expatriate employee James et al.

Conceptualization of Expatriate Family Adjustment In the context of international work experience, acculturation is a dual process of cultural and psychological change that takes place as a result of contact between two or more cultural groups and their individual members and which involves various forms of mutual accommodation Berry, Specific Challenges Lack of preparation, relocation, and cultural novelty induce quite some stress for partners Forster, ; a qualitative study with United Kingdom expatriate partners; Shaffer and Harrison, Specific Challenges Depending on their own age, children have to face additional challenges and these may have significant effects on the moving family as a whole.

Resources At the individual level, being open-minded i. Family as a Whole Expatriation demands major changes in family roles and living circumstances. Spillover Effects Caligiuri et al. Specific Challenges Rosenbusch and Cseh used family systems theory and expatriate adjustment as theoretical knowledge base to study cross-cultural adjustment of expatriate families in a multinational organization based in the United States.

Coping with Stress

Conclusion and Implications Summary of Findings Based on the empirical evidence from the studies included in our review, the following conclusions can be made about the challenges and stressors that come along with living as an expatriate family. Directions for Future Research Based on the findings of our review, we can conclude that despite the fact that research on expatriate family adjustment is growing Caligiuri et al.

Practical Implications Based on our narrative review on expatriate family adjustment, some practical and clinical implications can be outlined. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

References Ali A. The Intercultural Adaptation of Expatriate Spouses and children. Determinants of intercultural adjustment among expatriate spouses. Psychophysiological reactions during the first year of a foreign assignment: results of a controlled longitudinal study. Work Stress 11 — Psychophysiological reactions to international assignment. Addressing international mobility confusion — developing definitions and differentiations for selfinitiated and assigned expatriates as well as migrants.

Managing the well-being of temporary skilled migrants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Acculturation: living successfully in two cultures. Input-based and time-based models of international adjustment: meta-analytic evidence and theoretical extensions. Antecedents to cross-cultural adjustment for expatriates in Pacific Rim Assignments.

The other half of the picture: antecedents of spouse cross-cultural adjustment. The influence of the spouse on American expatriate adjustment and intent to stay in Pacific Rim overseas assignments. Adult third culture kids: HRD challenges and opportunities. New York, NY: Brookfield. Dominant stressors on expatriate couples during international assignments.


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Managing global talent: solving the spousal adjustment problem. Expatriate accompanying partners: the males speak. Asia Pac. Balancing the strengths of systematic and narrative reviews. Update 11 — Newark, NJ: Prudential Financial. Spousal adjustment on international assignments: the role of social support. Support systems and the relocation process for children and families. Marriage Fam. The psychological impact of expatriate relocation on partners.

Selmer J. Westport, CT: Quorum Books; , — Why do they go? Individual and corporate perspectives on the factors influencing the decision to accept an international assignment. Married, mom and manager — how can this be combined with an international career? The persistent myth of high expatriate failure rates: a reappraisal. Wrestling with expatriate family problems — Japanese experience in East Asia. A key challenge in global HRM: adding new insights to existing expatriate spouse adjustment models.

The expatriate family: an international perspective. Capital gains: expatriate adjustment and the psychological contract in international careers. Ibasho and the adjustment, satisfaction, and well-being of expatriate spouses. The personal characteristics of the successful expatriate. Marital, psychological, and sociocultural aspects of sojourner adjustment: Expanding the field of enquiry. Beyond conflict: the role of life-domain enrichment for expatriates. The supportive expatriate spouse: an ethnographic study of spouse involvement in expatriate careers.


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  • COPING WITH THE TRANSITION OF EXPATRIATION.
  • Heidelberg: Springer; , 29— Elucidating the positive side of the work and family interface on international assignments: a model of expatriate work and family performance. Does your intelligence help to survive in a foreign jungle? The effects of cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence on cross-cultural adjustment. Influences of cumulative risk and protective factors on the adjustment of adolescents in military families. Is moving gendered? The effects of residential mobility on the psychological well-being of men and women.

    Sex Roles 47 — Work-to-personal-life conflict among dual and single-career expatriates: Is it different for men and women? Family Assessment: Resiliency, Coping, and Adaptation. Family involvement in PSE: international schools easing the transition of mobile families. Care Educ. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar;. Till stress do us part: the causes and consequences of expatriate divorce. Looking for global talent in all the right places: a critical literature review of non-traditional expatriates.

    Research Handbook of Expatriates. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing; Beverly Hills, CA: Sage; , 59— The journey inward: expatriate hero tales and paradoxes. They can also improve global coordination. A study found the key drivers for expatriates to pursue international careers were: breadth of responsibilities, nature of the international environment risk and challenge , high levels of autonomy of international posts and cultural differences rethinking old ways.

    However, expatriate professionals and independent expatriate hires are often more expensive than local employees. Expatriate salaries are usually augmented with allowances to compensate for a higher cost of living or hardships associated with a foreign posting. Other expenses may need to be paid, such as health care, housing, or fees at an international school. There is also the cost of moving a family and their belongings. Another problem can be government restrictions in the foreign country. Spouses may have trouble adjusting due to culture shock , loss of their usual social network, interruptions to their own career, and helping children cope with a new school.

    These are chief reasons given for foreign assignments ending early.

    Moving Families: Expatriation, Stress and Coping - Mary Haour-Knipe - Google книги

    Some corporations have begun to include spouses earlier when making decisions about a foreign posting, and offer coaching or adjustment training before a family departs. The most common reasons for refusing an assignment are family concerns and the spouse's career. Expatriate failure is a term which has been coined for an employee returning prematurely to their home country, or resigning. There has been an increase in scholarly research into the field in recent years. K Canhilal and R. Shemueli suggest that successful expatriation is driven by a combination of individual, organizational, and context-related factors.

    Expatriate milieus have been the setting of many novels and short stories, often written by authors who spent years living abroad. The following is a list of notable works and authors, by approximate date of publication. From the s to s, Polish-born Joseph Conrad wrote a string of English-language novels drawing on his seagoing experiences in farflung colonies, including Heart of Darkness , Lord Jim and Nostromo English writer W.

    Somerset Maugham , a former spy, set many short stories and novels overseas, such as The Moon and Sixpence in which an English stockbroker flees to Tahiti to become an artist, and The Razor's Edge in which a traumatised American pilot seeks meaning in France and India. Ford Madox Ford used spa towns in Europe as the setting for his novel The Good Soldier about an American couple, a British couple, and their infidelities. Forster , is set against the backdrop of the independence movement in India.

    Tender is the Night , the last complete novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald , was about a glamorous American couple unravelling in the South of France. George Orwell drew heavily on his own experiences as a colonial policeman for his novel Burmese Days Evelyn Waugh satirised foreign correspondents in Scoop Ripley James Baldwin's novel Giovanni's Room was about an American man having an affair in Paris with an Italian bartender.

    Anthony Burgess worked as a teacher in Malaya and made it the setting of The Malayan Trilogy The Alexandria Quartet was the best-known work of Lawrence Durrell , who was born in India to British parents and lived overseas for most of his life. Ballard's English protagonists uncover dark secrets in luxurious gated communities in the South of France.

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    Shantaram was a bestselling novel by Gregory David Roberts about an Australian criminal who flees to India. Janice Y. Tom Rachman in his debut novel The Imperfectionists wrote of journalists working for an English-language newspaper in Rome. Memoirs of expatriate life can be considered a form of travel literature with an extended stay in the host country. Some of the more notable examples are listed here in order of their publication date, and recount experiences of roughly the same decade unless noted otherwise.

    COPING WITH THE TRANSITION OF EXPATRIATION

    In My Family and Other Animals and its sequels, Gerald Durrell described growing up as the budding naturalist in an eccentric English family on the Greek island of Corfu during the late s. In the early chapters of Miracles of Life , J. Ballard told of his childhood and early adolescence in Shanghai during the s and s. Films about expatriates often deal with issues of culture shock. Examples, grouped by host country, include:. Diplomats on a foreign posting have been the basis for drama Embassy , documentary The Embassy and comedy Ambassadors. British writers in Hollywood have been the subject of comedy Episodes.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Expatriate disambiguation. Individual temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than that of their citizenship. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Further information: List of sovereign states and dependent territories by immigrant population and List of countries by foreign-born population.

    This section needs expansion.