The only Son, who is truly God and is closest to the Father, has shown us what God is like. We have to give an answer to the ones who sent us. Tell us who you are! Here is the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
But I came to baptize you with water, so that everyone in Israel would see him. And the Spirit stayed on him. Then you will know that he is the one who will baptize with the Holy Spirit. So they stayed on for the rest of the day. There he met Philip, who was from Bethsaida, the hometown of Andrew and Peter. He is Jesus, the son of Joseph from Nazareth.
You will see something even greater. You'll get this book and many others when you join Bible Gateway Plus. Learn more. Starting your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus is easy. God loved the people of this world so much that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who has faith in him will have eternal life and never really die. John in other translations. Main category: Bible translations into English. November Archived from the original on March 1, Retrieved July 11, September 8, American Bible Society Press release. Archived from the original on June 18, Retrieved June 30, October 7, Retrieved June 28, The New Zealand Herald.
October 14, English-language translations of the Bible. Wycliffe Middle English Bible translations. Approximately eight years were devoted by medieval students to acquiring these tools—roughly equivalent to our four years of high school and four years of college. His study of the Sacred Text began with listening and reading. In the Middle Ages, a personal copy of the Bible was relatively rare, certainly outside university circles. Every copy of the Bible was written out by hand on parchment, a writing surface made from carefully treated skins of sheep.
Such a copy was extremely expensive and hard to come by. Although every student of theology tried desperately to obtain a personal copy, most people had to rely on hearing the Word read to them and recollecting from memory the actual words of the Bible. For that reason the beginner in theology would listen to older students and the master professor. One of the older students, the bachelor of theology, read aloud and paraphrased a particular book of the Bible.
Only a master could expound the text with authority and confidence; the bachelor merely skimmed through it as a runner would skim over the course in a race. A higher ranking bachelor devoted his energies mainly to explaining the official theological handbook, the Sentences of Peter Lombard d. Every university in the Middle Ages had a limited number of chairs, or professorships, for the masters to occupy. At the time of St.
Thomas, there were twelve chairs of theology at the University of Paris, the Dominicans having two of them. Thomas was twice professor of theology at Paris—a fact most unusual in itself. There were very few such cases where a fully fledged master would return to his old chair, thus preventing a new master from occupying it. But the intellectual, social, and religious climate in Paris at that time demanded the return of Thomas to the center of all theological learning in Europe.
The new mendicant Orders mainly Dominicans and Franciscans were again being attacked by secular i. The center of this controversy Was the University of Paris, where the very existence of Dominicans and Franciscans was under fire. At the climax of this renewed attack, the second in the history of the Dominican Order, St. Thomas arrived in Paris with his companion Reginald in the cold winter of after the academic term had begun. At the same time, he was composing the Second Part of his Summa theologiae, which he had begun in Rome two years earlier, and dictating a number of literal commentaries on various works of Aristotle for young masters in arts, that is, teachers in the Faculty of Arts, whose duty it was to expound the text of Aristotle.
During the two and a half years Thomas spent at Paris the second time, he successfully defended the rights of mendicants to teach, preach, and flourish. During this same Parisian regency he lectured on the Gospel of St. This student was Adenulf of Anagni, an Italian cleric, provost of Saint-Omer since , later master in theology , and canon of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. Adenulf, a student of Thomas during the years , offered a considerable amount of money to have a professional scribe make a copy of this remarkable commentary for himself. If it had not been for Reginald, apparently, these lectures would have gone completely from history.
But the fact is that we do have at hand the acute mind of Thomas Aquinas, a master theologian and saint, on the Gospel of St. This commentary reflects the mind of Thomas at its peak, but before he composed the Third Part of the Summa dealing with Christ, the Sacraments, and the Church. It is a scholastic analysis of St. Earlier, at the request of his intimate friend Pope Urban IV, Thomas had compiled a continuous gloss on all four Gospels, which he had collated from the Latin and Greek Fathers of the Church.
Frequently he even instigated new translations of Greek sources, as he himself confessed in the prologue. The intense labor on the Gospel of John for the Catena molded the mind of Thomas in his personal understanding of the Sacred Text of John. Thomas, John, the Son of Zebedee, the author of this Gospel, was a virgin, whose appropriate symbol is the eagle soaring in the heights of contemplation. That moment arrived when Thomas returned to Paris for the second time at the age of about forty-four, full of strength and vigor.
But his is a typical medieval commentary because, unlike Patristic, monastic, and modern commentaries on John, it utilizes certain techniques familiar to all in the Middle Ages, but strange to us today. First of all, it is a theological commentary concerned with penetrating the literal sense of the words recorded, and seeing through the literal sense to the spiritual.
The medieval university theologian was primarily concerned with the literal sense of scripture, that is, with the sacred message intended by the human and divine author. Thomas did not have at his disposal the infinitely varied techniques of modern biblical scholarship. He knew almost nothing about biblical and near-eastern languages, archeology, philology, comparative religion, and the historical method. If he had, he would most certainly have used them.
In the Encyclical Divino afflante Spiritu 30 Sept. Thomas in his commentary, that is most fruitful for our meditation, prayer, and preaching the Word of God today. The literal sense, as St.
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Thomas teaches, is the objective, formal, and direct meaning intended by the words in the sacred and inspired text. All he had was his personal copy of the Latin Vulgate which was not a critical edition , the familiar teaching of all the Latin and Greek Fathers known to him, his own prayerful reflection on the text, and his native genius attentive to the Spirit of God and to the text.
Among the human means Thomas had at his disposal were grammar, logic, and Aristotelian philosophy. The literal or historical sense was in principle the only basis of theological thought and discussion. The spiritual sense only enlarged, or extended, the basic literal sense. Consequently only the sacred author himself can inform us of the existence of such a sense.
We could never know that one reality is to be taken as a symbol of another reality unless the Sacred Author so informs us in the literal sense. There were three kinds of spiritual sense recognized by medieval theologians: the allegorical, the moral, and the anagogical. When anything in the Old Testament was taken to signify something in the New Testament, this sense was called allegorical.
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Under this sense would be included all those figures, persons, and events as symbolic of Jesus and his life and death on earth. When anything in the life of Jesus is taken as a model for our life, we call this the moral sense. Under this sense would be included all those virtues presented to us for our imitation of Christ. This, of course, presupposes that the authors of the New Testament were inspired by the Holy Spirit. The personal message is most significant for the reader, but this personal significance must be carefully controlled by objective theological norms such as the Christian faith, sacred doctrine, the constant teaching of the Church, and a prayerful listening to the Holy Spirit.
These techniques or modi sciendi were taken for granted by every medieval theologian as the best means of learning the truth about anything.
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The goal of all education is truth. The goal of theological education is an understanding of the doctrines of revelation, the sacra doctrina.
It is faith seeking understanding fides quaerens intellectum , as St. Anselm puts it, The scholastic method, in a sense, is artificial and humanly contrived by ineans of logic. In the Middle Ages the scholastic method was thought to be the best way of learning everything from A to Z. It cannot be eliminated.
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Therefore it depends on us moderns to bend a little by trying to see through it, and not be put off by it. Always one will find definitions, divisions, and proofs in all medieval commentaries, whether they be on Aristotle, Boethius, or the Bible. The Scholastics had a penchant for order; where none existed, one was imposed. This is why the first thing one notices when reading a medieval commentary is the division, or the ordering of the whole into parts.
The least one can perceive is a beginning, a middle, and an end. But more than not, one can usually perceive some orderly procedure in the middle. Modern biblical scholars usually see in, St. They then proceed to divide the middle into the Book of Signs cc. In any case, it is particularly in this second part that Thomas had to use his ingenuity to resolve the discrepancies between John and the Synoptics.
The Synoptics compress the public life of Jesus into one year with the one tragic journey of Jesus up to Jerusalem, where he is crucified and dies, to be raised up on the third day. John extends the public life of Jesus into three years with the final year ending in his passion, death, and resurrection.
Thomas is very much concerned with the literal, or historical, sense of the narrative, especially as concerns the passion, death, and resurrection of the Lord. Throughout the whole exposition of the narrative, Thomas relied heavily on the interpretation of the Fathers of the Church, both Latin and Greek. He quotes the authority of St. Augustine times, St. John Chrysostom times, and Origen 95 times. It is an exposition that relies heavily on the tradition of the Church and on his own prayerful theological reflections.
In the commentary on St.